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Lam, W.-H., He, H., Bayley, H. and Qing, Y. Location of phosphorylation sites within long polypeptide chains by binder-assisted nanopore detection. bioRxiv preprint


Yang, X., Artibani, et al. A 3D microtumour system that faithfully represents ovarian cancer minimal residual disease bioRxiv preprint

Zhang, Y., Riexinger J., Yang, X., Mikhailova, E., Jin, Y., Zhou, L. and Bayley H. A microscale soft ionic power source modulates neuronal network activity. Nature 620, 1001–1006 (2023),

Jin, Y., Mikhailova, E., Lei, M., Cowley, S.A., Sun, T., Yang, X., Zhang, Y., Liu, K., Catarino, D., Soares, L.C. and Bandiera, S., 2022. Functional Integration of 3D-Printed Cerebral Cortical Tissue into a Brain Lesion. Nature Communications 14, 5968 (2023).; also in bioRxiv:

Bo, Z., Lim, Z. H., Duarte, F., Bayley, H. and Qing, Y. Mobile molecules: reactivity profiling guides faster movement on a cysteine track. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 62, e202300890 (2023),

Martin-Baniandres, P., Lan, W.-H., Board, S., Romero-Ruiz, M., Garcia-Manyes, S., Qing, Y. and Bayley, H. Enzyme-less nanopore detection of post-translational modifications within long polypeptides. Nature Nanotechnology 18, 1335–1340 (2023),; SharedIt link:; also in  bioRxiv:

Johnson, P.A., Menegatti, S, Chambers, A.C., Alibhai, D., Collard, T.J., Williams, A.C., Bayley, H. and Perriman, A.W. A rapid high throughput bioprinted colorectal cancer spheroid platform for in vitro drug- and radiation response. Biofabrication 15, 014103 (2023),


Lee, S. and Bayley, H., 2022. Reconstruction of the Gram‐Negative Bacterial Outer‐Membrane Bilayer. Small, 18(16), p.2200007.

doi: 10.1002/smll.202200007

Hoskin, C.E.G., Restrepo-Schild, V., Camallonga, J.V. and Bayley, H. Parallel transmission in a synthetic nerve. Nature Chemistry 14, 650-657 (2022). doi: 10.1038/s41557-022-00916-1


Ying, Y.L., Hu, Z.-L., Zhang, S., Qing, Y., Fragasso, A., Maglia, G., Meller, A., Bayley, H., Dekker, C. and Long, Y.-T. Nanopore technologies: beyond DNA sequencing. Nature Nanotechnology, available online (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41565-022-01193-2

Qing, Y. and Bayley, H. Believe the hype: nanopore proteomics is moving forward. GEN Biotechnology 1, 28-29 (2022) DOI: 10.1089/genbio.2022.29008.qba

Lee, S. and Bayley, H. Reconstruction of the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane bilayer. Small 202200007 (1-7) (2022). DOI: 10.1002/smll.202200007

Bayley, H., Zhou, L. (2022). Synthetic and Hybrid Tissues. In: , et al. Encyclopedia of Astrobiology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Hoskin, C.E.G., Restrepo-Schild, V., Camallonga, J.V. and Bayley, H. Parallel transmission in a synthetic nerve. Nature Chemistry, online. doi: 10.1038/s41557-022-00916-1


Qing, Y. and Bayley, H. Enzymeless DNA base identification by chemical stepping in a nanopore J. Am. Chem. Soc. 143, 18181-18187 (2021).

Cazimoglu, I., Booth , M.J. and Bayley, H. A lipid-based droplet processor for parallel chemical signals, submitted for publication.

Alcinesio, A., Cazimoglu, I., Kimmerly, G.R., Restrepo Schild, V., Krishna Kumar, R. and Bayley, H., 2022. Modular Synthetic Tissues from 3D‐Printed Building Blocks. Advanced Functional Materials, 32(7), p.2107773.

Alcinesio, A., Krishna Kumar, R. and Bayley, H. Functional multivesicular structures with controlled architecture from 3D-printed droplet networks. ChemSystemsChem 3 e21100036 (2021)

Scott, A.J., Niitsu, A., Kratochvil, H.T., Lang, E.J.M., Sengel, J.T., Dawson, W.M., Mahendran, K.R., Mravic, M., Thomson, A.R., Brady, R.L., Liu, L., Mulholland, A.J., Bayley, H., DeGrado, W.F., Wallace, M.I. and Woolfson, D.N. Constructing ion channels from water-soluble a-helical barrels. Nature Chemistry 13, 643-650 (2021)

Krishna Kumar, R., Meiller-Legrand, T.A., Alcinesio, A., Gonzalez, D., Mavridou, D.A.I., Meacock, O.J., Smith, W.P.J., Zhou, L., Kim, W., Pulcu, G.S., Bayley, H., Foster, K.R., Droplet printing reveals the importance of micron-scale structure for bacterial ecology. Nat. Commun. 857 (2021). DOI:10.1038/s41467-021-20996-w

Zhou, L., Puig, C.R., Jacobs, B.-A.,  Han, X., Lisle, R., Bayley, H. and Lu, X. Bioengineered tubular gastrointestinal tissues with fibroblast-induced shapes. Adv. Functional Materials 31, 2007514 (1-10) (2021).


Qing, Y., Liu, M.D., Hartmann, D.,  Zhou, L., Ramsay, W.J.  and Bayley, H. Single-molecule observation of intermediates in bioorthogonal 2-cyanobenzothiazole chemistry. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 59, 15711-15716 (2020).


Lee, S., Housden, N.G., Ionescu, S.A., Zimmer, M.H., Kaminska, R., Kleanthous, C. and Bayley, H. Transmembrane epitope delivery by passive protein threading through the pores of the OmpF porin trimer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 142, 12157-12166 (2020).


Jansen,K.B., Inns, P,G., Housden, N.G., Hopper, J.T.S., Kaminska, R., Lee, S., Robinson, C.V., Bayley, H. and Kleanthous, C. Bifurcated binding of the OmpF receptor underpins import of the bacteriocin colicin N into Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 295, 9147-9156 (2020). doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA120.013508


Zhou, L., Wolfes, A.C., Li, Y., Chen, D.C.W., Ko, H., Szele, F.G. and Bayley, H. Lipid bilayer supported 3D printing of human cerebral cortex cells reveals developmental interactions. Advanced Materials 32, e2002183 (2020). DOI: 10.1002/adma.202002183


Alcinesio, A., Meacock, O.J., Allan, R.G., Monico, C., Restrepo-Schild, V., Cazimoglu, I., Cornall, M., Krishna Kumar, R. and Bayley, H. Controlled packing and single-droplet resolution of 3D-printed functional synthetic tissues. Nature Communications 11, 2105 (2020).;


Rosen, C.B., Bayley, H. and Rodriguez-Larrea, D. Free-energy landscapes of membrane co-translocational protein unfolding. Communications Biology 13, 160 (2020).

Thorneywork, A,L., Gladrow, J., Qing, Y., Rico-Pasto, M., Ritort, F., Bayley, H., Kolomeisky, A.B. and Keyser, U.F. Direct detection of molecular intermediates from first-passage times. Science Advances 6, eaaz4642 (2020). doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz4642


Feng, J., Martin-Baniandres, P., Booth, M.J., Veggiani, G., Howarth, M., Bayley, H. and Rodriguez-Larrea, D. Transmembrane protein rotaxanes reveal kinetic traps in the refolding of translocated substrates. Communications Biology 13, 159 (2020).


Downs, F.G. Lunn, D.J., Booth, M.J., Sauer, J.B. Ramsay, W.J., Klemperer, R.G., Hawker, C.J. and Bayley, H. Multi-responsive hydrogel structures from patterned droplet networks. Nature Chemistry 12, 363-371 (2020). PMC7117959



Booth, M.J., Cazimoglu, I. and Bayley, H. Controlled deprotection and release of small molecules from a compartmented synthetic tissue module. Communications Chemistry 2, 142 (1-8) (2019).


Qing, Y., Tamagaki-Asahina, H., Ionescu, S.A., Liu, M.D. and Bayley, H. Catalytic site-selective substrate processing within a tubular nanoreactor. Nature Nanotechnology 14, 1135-1142 (2019). doi: 10.1038/s41565-019-0579-7.


Pulcu, G.S., Galenkamp, N.S., Qing, Y., Gasparini, G., Mikhailova, E., Matile, S. and Bayley, H. Single-molecule kinetics of growth and degradation of cell-penetrating poly(disulfide)s.   J. Am. Chem. Soc. 141, 12444-12447 (2019).  DOI: 10.1021/jacs.9b00387


Koo, S., Cheley, S.B. and Bayley H. Redirecting pore assembly of staphylococcal a-hemolysin by protein engineering. ACS Central Science 5, 629–639 (2019). DOI: 10.1021/acscentsci.8b00910


Harrington, L., Alexander, L. T., Knapp, S. and Bayley, H. Single-molecule protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation by nanopore enzymology. ACS Nano 13, 633-641 (2019). doi: 10.1021/acsnano.8b07697



Ramsay, W.J., Bell, N.A.W., Qing, Y. and Bayley, H., Single-molecule observation of the intermediates in a catalytic cycle. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 140, 17538 (2018). DOI:10.1021/jacs.8b09282

Qing, Y., Ionescu S. A., Pulcu, G.S., and Bayley, H., Directional control of a processive molecular hopper. Science, 361, 908 (2018). DOI:10.1126/science.aat3872

Housden, N.G., Rassam, P., Lee, S., ... et al, Directional porin binding of intrinsically disordered protein sequences promotes colicin epitope display in the bacterial periplasm. Biochemistry, 67, 4374 (2018). DOI:10.1021/acs.biochem.8b00621

Liko, I., Degiacomi, M.T, Lee, S., ... et al., Lipid binding attenuates channel closure of the outer membrane protein OmpF. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 115, 6691 (2018). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1721152115

Spruijt, E., Tusk, S.E. and Bayley, H., DNA scaffolds support stable and uniform peptide nanopores. Nature Nanotechnology, 13, 739 (2018). DOI:10.1038/s41565-018-0139-6

Ramsay, W.J. and Bayley, H., Single-molecule determination of the isomers of D-glucose and D-fructose that bind to boronic acids. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 57, 2841 (2018). DOI:10.1002/anie.201712740

Qing, Y., Pulcu, G.S., Bell, N. and Bayley, H., Bioorthogonal cycloadditions with sub-millisecond intermediates. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 57, 1218, (2018). DOI:10.1002/anie.201710262


Bayley, H., Single-molecule DNA sequencing: Getting to the bottom of the well. Nat. Nanotechnol., 12, 1116, (2017). DOI:10.1002/anie.201710262


Booth, M.J., Restrepo-Schild, V., Box, S.J., Bayley, H., Light-patterning synthetic tissues with single droplet resolution. Sci. Rep., 7, 9315, (2017). DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-09394-9

Rouse, S.L., Hawthorne, W.J., Berry, J-L., Chorev, D.S., Sessions, R.B., Ionescu, S.A., Lambert, S., Stylianuo, F., Ewert, W., Mackie, U., Morgan, R.M.L., Otzen, D., Herbst, F-A, Nielson, P.H., Dueholm, M. Bayley, H., Robinson, C.V., Hare, S. and Matthews, S., A new class of hybrid secretion system is employed in Pseudomonas amyloid biogenesis. Nat. Commun., 8, 263, (2017). DOI:10.1038/s41467-017-00361-6

Graham, A.D., Olof, S.N., Burke, M., Armstrong, J.P.K., Mikhailova, E., Nicholson, J., Szele, F., Perriman, A.W. and Bayley, H., High-resolution patterned cell networks by 3D droplet printing. Sci. Rep. , 7, 7004, (2017). DOI:10.1039/c7mb00192d

Booth, M.J., Restrepo-Schild, V., Downs, F. and Bayley, H., Functional aqueous droplet networks. Mol. BioSyst., 13, 1658-1691 , (2017). DOI:110.1039/c7mb00192d

Ma, S., Mukherjee, N., Mikhailova, E. and Bayley, H., Gel microrods for 3D tissue printing. Adv. Biosys., 1, 1-11, (2017). DOI:10.1002/adbi.201700075

Mahendran, K.R., Niitsu, A., Kong, L., Thomson, A.R., Sessions, R.B., Woolfson, D.N. and Bayley, H., A monodisperse transmembrane -helical peptide barrel. Nat. Chem., 9, 411-419, (2017). DOI:10.1038/nchem.2647


Ionescu, S.A., Lee, S., Housden, N.G., Kaminska, R., Kleanthous, C. and Bayley, H., Orientation of the OmpF porin in planar lipid bilayers. ChemBioChem, 18, 554-562 (2017).DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201600644

Bayoumi, M., Bayley, H. Maglia, G. and Sapra, K.T., Multi-compartment encapsulation of communicating droplets and droplet networks in hydrogel as a model for artificial cells. Sci. Rep., 7, 45167 (2017). DOI: 10.1038/srep45167

Restrepo-Schild, V., Booth, M.J., Box, S.J., Olof, S.N., Mahendran, K.R. and Bayley, H., Light-patterned current generation in a droplet bilayer array. Sci. Rep. 7, 46585 (2017). DOI:10.1038/srep46585


Ayub, M. and Bayley, H., Engineered transmembrane pores, Curr. Op. Chem. Biol. , 34, 117-126, (2016).

Lee, J., Boersma, A.J., Boudreau, M.A., Cheley, S., Daltrop, O., Li, J., Tamagaki, H. and Bayley, H., Semisynthetic nanoreactor for reversible single-molecule covalent chemistry. ACS Nano, 10, 8843-8850 (2016).DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.6b04663

Booth, M.J., and Bayley, H., 3D-printed synthetic tissues, The Biochemist, 38, (2016). DOI:

Kong, L., Almond, A., Bayley, H and Davis, B.G., Chemical polyglycosylation and nanolitre detection enables single-molecule recapitulation of bacterial sugar export. Nature Chemistry 8, 461-469 (2016). DOI: 10.1038/NCHEM.2487

Booth, M.J., Restrepo Schild, V., Graham, A.D., Olof, S.N. and Bayley, H., Light-activated communication in synthetic tissues. Science Advances, 2, (2016).DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600056


Pliotas, C., Dahl, A.C.D., Rasmussen, T., Mahendran, K.R., Smith, T.K., Marius, R., Gault, J., Banda, T., Rasmussen, A., Miller, S., Robinson, C.V., Bayley, H., Sansom, M.S.P., Booth, I.R. and Naismith, J.H. The role of lipids in mechanosensation. Nature Structural and Molecular Biology, published ASAP (2015) DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.3120

Lee, J. and Bayley, H. A semisynthetic protein nanoreactor for single molecule-chemistry. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA112, 13768-13773 (2015). DOI:

Huang, S., Romero-Ruiz, M., Castell, O.K., Bayley, H., and Wallace, M.I. High-throughput optical sensing of nucleic acids in a nanopore array. Nature Nanotechnology 10, 986-991 (2015). DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2015.189

Ayub, M., Stoddart, D. and Bayley, H. Nucleobase recognition by truncated α-hemolysin pores. ACS Nano (2015). DOI: 10.1021/nn5060317

Harrington, L. Alexander, L. T, Knapp, S. and Bayley, H. Pim kinase inhibitors evaluated with a single-molecule engineered nanopore sensor. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, published ASAP (2015) DOI: 10.1002/anie.201503141

Before 2015

Pulcu, G.S., Mikhailova, E., Choi, L.-S. and Bayley, H. Continuous observation of the stochastic motion of an individual small-molecule walker. Nature Nanotechnology, published ASAP (2015) DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.264

Czekalska, M.A., Kaminski, T.S., Jakiela, S. K., Sapra, T., Bayley, H. and Garstecki, P. Automated microfluidic system for generation of lipid bilayers and screening of membrane protein activity. Lab on a Chip, published ASAP (2014) DOI: 10.1039/C4LC00985A

Trick, J.L., Wallace, E.J., Bayley, H. and Sansom, M.S. Designing a hydrophobic barrier within biomimetic nanopores. ACS Nano, published ASAP (2014). DOI: 10.1021/nn503930p

Rodriguez-Larrea, D. and Bayley, H. Protein co-translocational unfolding depends on the direction of pulling. Nature Communications 5, 4841 (2014). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5841

Steffensen, M. B., Rotem, D. and Bayley, H. Single-molecule analysis of chirality in a multicomponent reaction network. Nature Chemistry, published ASAP (2014). DOI: 10.1038/nchem.1949

Stoddart, D., Ayub, M., Höfler, L., Raychaudhuri, P., Klingelhoefer, J.W., Maglia, G., Heron, A. and Bayley, H. Functional truncated membrane pores. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 2425-2430 (2014). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.131297611

Rosen, C. B., Rodriguez-Larrea, D. and Bayley, H. Single-molecule site-specific detection of protein phosphorylation. Nature Biotechnology, (2014). DOI: 10.1038/NBT.2799

Clamer, M., Hofler, L., Mikhailova, E., Viero, G. and Bayley, H. Detection of 3’-end RNA uridylation with a protein nanopore. ACS Nano, (2014). DOI: 10.1021/nn4050479

Wauer, T., Gerlach, H., Mantri, S., Hill, J., Bayley, H. and Sapra, K.T. Construction and manipulation of functional 3D droplet networks. ACS Nano, (2014). DOI: 10.1021/nn405433y

Ayub, M., Hardwick, S., Luisi, B. and Bayley, H. Nanopore-based identification of individual nucleotides for direct RNA sequencing. Nano Letters, (2013). DOI: 10.1021/nl403469r

Harrington, L., Cheley, S. Alexander, L.T., Knapp, S. and Bayley, H. Stochastic detection of Pim kinases reveals electrostatically enhanced association of a peptide substrate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, in press (2013). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1312739110

Reeve, J.E., Corbett, A.D., Boczarow, I., Kaluza, W., Barford, W., Bayley, H., Wilson, T. and Anderson, H.L. Porphyrins for probing electrical potential across lipid bilayer membranes by second harmonic generation. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 52, 9044-9048 (2013). DOI: 10.1002/anie.201304515

Kong, L. Li, Q., Harrington, L., Cheley, S., Davis, B. G. and Bayley, H. An extracellular inhibitor of the pore component of E. coli K30 polysaccharide transport. Nature Chemistry 5 651-659 (2013). DOI: 10.1038/nchem.1695

Choi, L.-S., Mach, T. and Bayley, H. Rates and stoichiometries of metal ion probes of cysteine residues within ion channels. Biophysical Journal 105, 356-364 (2013). DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2013.04.046

Housden, N.G., Hopper, J.T.S., Lukoyanova, N., Rodriguez-Larrea, D., Wojdyla, J.A., Klein, A., Kaminska, R., Bayley, H., Saibil, H.R., Robinson, C.V. and Kleanthous, C. Intrinsically disordered protein threads through the bacterial outer membrane porin OmpF. Science 340, 1570-1574 (2013). DOI: 10.1126/science.1237864

Cracknell, J.A., Japrung, D. and Bayley, H. Translocating kilobase RNA through the staphylococcal α-hemolysin nanopore. Nano Letters 13, 2500-2505 (2013). DOI: 10.1021/nl400560r

Mantri, S., Sapra, K.T., Cheley, S., Sharp, T. and Bayley, H. An engineered dimeric protein pore that spans adjacent lipid bilayers. Nature Communications 4, 1725 (2013). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2726

Li, W.-W., Gong, L. and Bayley, H. Single-molecule detection of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in DNA through chemical modification and nanopore analysis. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 52, 4350-4355 (2013). DOI: 10.1002/anie.201300413

Villar, G., Graham, A.D. and Bayley, H. A tissue-like printed material. Science 340, 48-52 (2013). DOI: 10.1126/science.1229495

Rodriguez-Larrea, D. and Bayley, H. Multistep protein unfolding during nanopore translocation. Nature Nanotechnology 8, 288-295 (2013). DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2013.22

Sapra, K.T. and Bayley, H. Lipid-coated hydrogel shapes as components of electrical circuits and mechanical devices. Scientific Reports 2, 848 (2012). DOI: 10.1038/srep00848

Ayub, M. and Bayley, H. Individual RNA base recognition in immobilized oligonucleotides using a protein nanopore. Nano Letters 12, 5637-5643 (2012). DOI: 10.1021/nl3027873

Syeda, R., Santos, J.S., Montal, M. and Bayley, H. Tetrameric assembly of KvLm K+ channels with defined numbers of voltage-sensors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 16917-16922 (2012). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1205592109

Boersma, A. and Bayley, H. Continuous stochastic detection of amino acid enantiomers with a protein nanopore. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 9606-9609 (2012). DOI: 10.1002/anie.201205687

Reeve, J.E., Corbett, A.D., Boczarow, I., Wilson, T, Bayley, H and Anderson, H.L. Probing the orientational distribution of dyes in membranes through multiphoton microscopy. Biophysical Journal 103, 907-917 (2012). DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2012.08.003

Soskine, M., Biesemans, A., Moeyaert, B., Cheley, S., Bayley, H. and Maglia, G. An engineered ClyA nanopore detects folded target proteins by selective binding and
translocation. Nano Letters 12, 4895-4900 (2012). DOI: 10.1021/nl3024438

Choi, L.-S. and Bayley, H. S-Nitrosothiol chemistry at the single-molecule level. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 7972-7976 (2012). DOI: 10.1002/anie.201202365

Boersma, A., Brain, K. and Bayley, H. Real-time stochastic detection of multiple neurotransmitters with a protein nanopore. ACS Nano 6, 5304-5308 (2012). DOI: 10.1021/nn301125y

Rotem, D., Jayasinghe, K., Salichou, M. and Bayley, H. Protein detection by nanopores equipped with aptamers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 2781-2787 (2012). DOI: 10.1021/ja2105653

Franceschini, L., Mikhailova, E., Bayley, H. and Maglia, G. Apparent pKa of single bases and nucleobase recognition at alkaline pH in a DNA strand immobilised in a biological nanopore. Chem Comm, 46, 8195-8197 (2011). DOI: 10.1039/C1CC16124E

Lou, H., Chen, M., Black, S., Bushell, S. R., Ceccarelli, M., Mach, T., Beis, K., Low, A. S., Bamford, V. A., Booth, I. R., Bayley, H. and Naismith, J. H. Altered antibiotic transport in OmpC mutants isolated from a series of clinical strains of multi-drug resistant E. coli. PLoS One, 6(10): e25825 (2011).
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025825

Villar, G., Heron, A. J. and Bayley, H. Formation of droplet networks that function in aqueous environments. Nature Nanotechnology (2011). DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2011.183

Wu, Y., Ma, L., Cheley, S., Bayley, H., Cui, Q. and Chapman, E. R. Permeation of styryl dyes through nanometer-scale pores in membranes. Biochemistry, 50 (35), 7493-7502 (2011).
DOI: 10.1021/bi2006288

Bond, P. J., Guy, A. T., Heron, A. J., Bayley, H. and Khalid, S. Molecular dynamics simulations of DNA within a Nanopore: Arginine-Phosphate tethering and a binding/sliding mechanism for translocation. Biochemistry, 50 (18), 3777–3783 (2011). DOI: 10.1021/bi101404n

Hammerstein, A. F., Jayasinghe, L. and Bayley, H. Subunit dimers of α-hemolysin expand the engineering toolbox for protein nanopores. J. Biol. Chem, 286, 14324-14334 (2011).
DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.218164

Raychaudhuri, P., Li, Q., Mason, A., Mikhailova, E., Heron, A. J. and Bayley, H. Fluorinated amphiphiles control the insertion of α-hemolysin pores into lipid bilayers. Biochemistry, 50 (10), 1599-1606 (2011). DOI: 10.1021/bi1012386.

Li, W.-W., Claridge, T.D.W., Li, Q., Wormald, M.R., Davis, B.G. and Bayley, H. Tuning the cavity of cyclodextrins: Altered sugar adaptors in protein pores. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 133 (6), 1987-2001 (2011). DOI: 10.1021/ja1100867.

Rincon-Restrepo, M., Mikhailova, E., Bayley, H. and Maglia, G. Controlled translocation of individual DNA molecules through protein nanopores with engineered molecular brakes. Nano Letters, 11 (2), 746-750 (2011). DOI: 10.1021/nl1038874.

Before 2010

Hall, A.R., Scott, A., Rotem, D., Mehta, K., Bayley, H. and Dekker, C. Hybrid pore formation by directed insertion of α-haemolysin into solid-state nanopores. Nature Nanotechnology, 5, 874-877 (2010). DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2010.237.

Wallace, E.B.V., Stoddart, D., Heron, A.J., Mikhailova, E., Maglia, G., Donohoe, T.J. and Bayley, H. Identification of epigenetic DNA modifications with a protein nanopore. ChemComm 46, in press (2010). DOI: 10.1039/c0cc02864a.

Lu, S., Li, W.-W., Rotem, D., Mikhailova, E. and Bayley, H. A primary hydrogen-deuterium isotope effect observed at the single molecule level. Nature Chemistry 2, 921-928 (2010). DOI: 10.1038/nchem.821.

Stoddart, D., Heron, A.J., Klingelhoefer, J., Mikhailova, E., Maglia, G. and Bayley, H. Nucleobase recognition in ssDNA at the central constriction of the α-hemolysin pore. Nano Letters 10, 3633-3637 (2010). DOI: 10.1021/nl101955a.

Hammerstein, A.F., Shin, S.-H. and Bayley, H. Single-molecule kinetics of two-step divalent cation chelation. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 5085-5090 (2010). DOI: 10.1002/anie.200906601.

Banerjee, A., Mikhailova, E., Cheley, S., Gu, L.-Q., Montoya, M., Nagaoka, Y., Gouaux, E. and Bayley, H. Molecular bases of cyclodextrin adapter interactions with a protein nanopore. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 8165-8170 (2010). DOI:10.1073/pnas.0914229107.

Japrung, D., Henricus, M., Li, Q., Maglia, G. and Bayley, H. Urea facilitates the translocation of single-stranded DNA and RNA through the α-hemolysin nanopore. Biophysical Journal 98, 1856-1863 (2010). DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2009.12.4333.

Stoddart, D., Maglia, G., Mikhailova, E., Heron, A. and Bayley, H. Multiple base-recognition sites in a biological nanopore: two heads are better than one. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 556-559 (2010).
DOI: 10.1002/anie.200905483.

Rotem, D., Mason, A. and Bayley, H. Inactivation of the KcsA potassium channel explored with heterotetramers. J. Gen. Physiol. 135, 29-42 (2010). DOI: 10.1085/jgp.200910305.

Maglia, M., Henricus, M., Wyss, R., Li, Q., Cheley, S. and Bayley, H. DNA strands from denatured duplexes are translocated through engineered protein nanopores at alkaline pH. Nano Letters 9, 3831-3836 (2009). DOI: 10.1021/nl9020232.

Maglia, G., Heron, A.J., Hwang, W.L., Holden, M.A., Mikhailova, E., Li, Q., Cheley, S. and Bayley, H. Droplet networks with incorporated protein diodes exhibit collective properties. Nature Nanotechnology 4, 437-40 (2009). DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2009.121

Stoddart, D., Heron, A., Mikhailova, E., Maglia, G. and Bayley, H. Single nucleotide discrimination in immobilized DNA oligonucleotides with a biological nanopore. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 7702-7707 (2009). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0901054106 PMC2683137.

Clarke, J., Wu, H., Jayasinghe, L., Patel, A., Reid, S. and Bayley, H. Continuous base identification for single-molecule nanopore DNA sequencing. Nature Nanotechnology 4, 265-270 (2009). DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2009.12.

Husmann, M., Beckmann, E., Boller, K., Kloft, N., Tenzer, S., Bobkiewicz, W., Neukirch, C., Bayley, H. and Bhakdi, S. Elimination of a bacterial pore-forming toxin by sequential endocytosis and exocytosis. FEBS Letters 583, 337-344 (2009) DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2008.12.028.

Heron, A.J., Thompson, J.R., Cronin, B., Bayley, H. and Wallace, M.I. Simultaneous measurement of ion-current and fluorescence from single protein pores. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 1652-1653 (2009) DOI: 10.1021/ja808128s.

Maglia, G., Rincon Restrepo, M., Mikhailova, E. and Bayley, H. Enhanced translocation of single DNA molecules through a-hemolysin nanopores by manipulation of internal charge. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19720-19725 (2008) DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0808296105 PMC2604925.

Chen, M., Li, Q.-H. and Bayley, H. Orientation of the monomeric porin OmpG in planar lipid bilayers. ChemBioChem 9, 3029-3036 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/cbic.200800444.

Syeda, R., Holden, M.A., Hwang, W.L. and Bayley, H. Rapid screening of blockers against a potassium channel with a droplet interface bilayer array. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 15543-15548 (2008)
DOI: 10.1021/ja804968g.

Nagaoka, Y., Shang, L., Banerjee, A., Bayley, H. and Tucker, S.J. Peptide backbone mutagenesis of putative gating hinges in a potassium ion channel. ChemBioChem 9, 1725-1728 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/cbic.200800133.

Wu, H.-C. and Bayley, H. Single-molecule detection of nitrogen mustards by covalent reaction within a protein nanopore. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 6813-6819 (2008) DOI: 10.1021/ja8004607.

Chen, M., Khalid, S., Sansom, M.S.P. and Bayley, H. Outer membrane protein G: engineering a quiet pore for biosensing. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 6272-6277(2008) DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0711561105 PMC2359795.

Hwang, W.L., Chen, M., Cronin, B., Holden, M.A. and Bayley, H. Asymmetric droplet interface bilayers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 5878-5879 (2008) DOI: 10.1021/ja802089s.

Wu, H.-C., Astier, Y., Maglia, G., Mikhailova, E. and Bayley, H. Protein nanopores with covalently attached molecular adapters. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 16142-16148 (2007) DOI: 10.1021/ja0761840.

Wolfe, A.J., Mohammad, M.M., Cheley, S., Bayley, H. and Movileanu, L. Catalyzing the translocation of polypeptides through attractive interactions. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 14034-14041 (2007) DOI: 10.1021/ja0749340.

Astier, Y., Kainov, D.E., Bayley, H., Tuma, R. and Howorka, S. Stochastic detection of motor protein-RNA complexes by single-channel current recording. ChemPhysChem 8, 2189-94 (2007). DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200700179.

Hwang, W.L., Holden, M.A., White, S. and Bayley, H. Electrical behavior of droplet interface bilayer networks: experimental analysis and modeling. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 11854-11864 (2007). DOI: 10.1021/ja074071a.

Shin, S.-H., Steffensen, M.B., Claridge, T.D.W. and Bayley, H. Formation of a chiral center and pyramidal inversion at the single-molecule level. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 7412-7416 (2007). DOI: 10.1002/anie.200700736.

Holden, M.A., Needham, D. and Bayley, H. Functional bionetworks from nanoliter water droplets. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 8650-8655 (2007). DOI: 10.1021/ja072292a.

Das, S.K., Darshi, M., Cheley, S., Wallace, M.I. and Bayley, H. Membrane protein stoichiometry determined from the step-wise photobleaching of dye-labelled subunits. ChemBioChem 8 994-999 (2007). DOI: 10.1002/cbic.200600474.

Kang, X.-f., Cheley, S., Rice-Ficht, A.C. and Bayley, H. A storable encapsulated bilayer chip containing a single protein nanopore. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 4701-4705 (2007). DOI: 10.1021/ja068654g.

Cheley, S., Xie, H. and Bayley, H. A genetically-encoded pore for the stochastic detection of a protein kinase. ChemBioChem 7, 1923-1927 (2006). DOI 10.1002/cbic.200600274.

Jung, Y., Bayley, H. and Movileanu, L. Temperature-responsive protein pores. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 15332-15340 (2006). DOI: 10.1021/ja065827t.

Loudwig, S. and Bayley, H. Photoisomerization of an individual azobenzene molecule in water: an on-off switch triggered by light at a fixed wavelength. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 12404-12405 (2006). DOI 10.1021/ja0642818.

Kang, X.-f., Cheley, S., Guan, X. and Bayley, H. Stochastic detection of enantiomers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 10684-10685 (2006). DOI 10.1021/ja0634851.         

Holden, M., Jayasinghe, L., Daltrop, O., Mason, A. and Bayley, H. Direct transfer of membrane proteins from bacteria to planar bilayers for rapid screening by single-channel recording. Nature Chemical Biology 2, 314-318 (2006). DOI 10.1038/nchembio793.               

Astier, Y., Braha, O. and Bayley, H. Toward single molecule DNA sequencing: direct identification of ribonucleoside and deoxyribonucleoside 5-monophosphates by using an engineered protein nanopore equipped with a molecular adapter. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1705-1710 (2006). DOI 10.1021/ja057123+.

Miles, G., Jayasinghe, L. and Bayley, H. Assembly of the bi-component leukocidin pore examined by truncation mutagenesis. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 2205-2214 (2006). DOI 10.1074/jbc.M510842200.

Jayasinghe, L., Miles, G. and Bayley, H. Role of the amino latch of staphylococcal a-hemolysin in pore formation: a co-operative interaction between the N terminus and position 217. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 2195-2204 (2006). DOI 10.1074/jbc.M510841200.

Jayasinghe, L. and Bayley, H. The leukocidin pore: evidence for an octamer with four LukS subunits and four LukF subunits alternating around a central axis. Protein Science 14, 2550-2561 (2005).

Guan, X., Gu, L.-Q., Cheley, S., Braha, O. and Bayley, H. Stochastic sensing of TNT with a genetically engineered pore. ChemBioChem 6, 1875-1881 (2005).

Shin, S.H. and Bayley, H. Stepwise growth of a single polymer chain. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 10462-10463 (2005).

Movileanu, L., Schmittschmitt, J.P., Scholtz, J.M. and Bayley, H. Interactions of peptides with a protein pore. Biophys. J. 89, 1030-1045 (2005).

Jung, Y., Cheley, S., Braha, O. and Bayley, H. The internal cavity of the staphylococcal a-hemolysin pore accommodates ~175 exogenous amino acid residues, Biochemistry 44, 8919-8929 (2005). 

Holden, M.A. and Bayley, H. Direct introduction of single protein channels and pores into lipid bilayers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 6502-6503 (2005). 

Braha, O., Webb, J., Gu, L.-Q., Kim, K. and Bayley, H. Carriers versus adapters in stochastic sensing. ChemPhysChem 6, 889-892 (2005).                    

Kang, X.-f., Gu, L.-Q., Cheley, S. and Bayley, H. Single protein pores containing molecular adapters at high temperatures. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 44, 1495-1499 (2005).

Ashkenasy, N., Sanchez-Quesada, J., Bayley, H. and Ghadiri, M.R. Recognizing a single base in an individual DNA strand: a step toward nanopore DNA sequencing. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 44, 1401-1404 (2005) PMC1828035.

Xie, H., Braha, O., Gu, L.-Q., Cheley, S. and Bayley, H. Single-molecule observation of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase binding to an inhibitor peptide. Chemistry & Biology 12, 109-120 (2005).

Sanchez-Quesada, J., Saghatelian, A., Cheley, S., Bayley, H. and Ghadiri, M.R. Single molecule DNA rotaxanes of a transmembrane pore protein. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 3063-3067 (2004).

Howorka, S., Nam, J., Bayley, H. and Kahne, D. Stochastic detection of monovalent and bivalent protein-ligand interactions. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 842-846 (2004).

Gu, L.-Q., Cheley, S. and Bayley, H. Electroosmotic enhancement of the binding of a neutral molecule to a transmembrane pore. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 15498-15503 (2003).

Luchian, T., Shin, S.-H. and Bayley, H. Single-molecule covalent chemistry with spatially separated reactants. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 3766-3771 (2003).

Conlan, S. and Bayley, H. Folding pathway of a monomeric porin, OmpG, in detergent solution. Biochemistry 42, 9453-9465 (2003).

Movileanu, L., Cheley, H. and Bayley, H. Partitioning of individual flexible polymers into a nanoscopic protein pore. Biophys. J. 85, 897-910 (2003).

Acker, J.P., Lu, X.-m., Young, V., Cheley, H., Bayley, H., Fowler, A. and Toner, M. Measurement of trehalose loading of mammalian cells porated with a metal-actuated switchable pore. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 82, 525-532 (2003).

Howorka, S. and Bayley, H. Probing distance and electrical potential within a protein pore with tethered DNA. Biophys. J. 83, 3202-3210 (2002).

Peterman, M.C., Ziebarth J.M., Braha, O., Bayley, H., Fishman, H.A. and Bloom, D.M. Ion channels and lipid bilayer membranes under high potentials using microfabricated apertures. Biomed. Microdevices 4, 231-236 (2002).

Shin, S.-H., Luchian, T., Cheley, S., Braha, O. and Bayley, H. Kinetics of a reversible covalent-bond forming reaction observed at the single-molecule level. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41, 3707-3709 (2002).

Cheley, S., Gu, L.-Q. and Bayley, H. Stochastic sensing of nanomolar inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate with an engineered pore. Chemistry & Biology 9, 829-838 (2002).

Zou,K., Cheley, S., Givens, R.S. and Bayley, H. Catalytic subunit of protein kinase A caged at the activating phosphothreonine, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 8220-8229 (2002).

Miles, G., Bayley, H. and Cheley, S. Properties of Bacillus cereus hemolysin II: a heptameric transmembrane pore, Protein Science 11, 1813-1824 (2002).

Miles, G., Movileanu, L. and Bayley, H. Subunit composition of a bicomponent toxin: taphylococcal  leukocidin forms an octameric transmembrane pore, Protein Science 11, 894-902 (2002).

Chen,T., Acker, J.P., Eroglu, A., Cheley, S., Bayley, H., Fowler, A. and Toner, M. Beneficial effects of intracellular trehalose on the membrane integrity of dried mammalian cells, Cryobiology 43, 168-181 (2001)

Gu, L.-Q., Cheley, S. and Bayley, H. Prolonged residence time of a noncovalent molecular adapter, b-cyclodextrin, within the lumen of mutant a-hemolysin pores, J. General Physiology 118, 481-494 (2001).

Howorka, S., Movileanu, L., Braha, O. and Bayley, H. Kinetics of duplex formation for individual DNA strands within a single protein nanopore, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 12996-13001 (2001).

Movileanu, L. and Bayley, H. Partitioning of a polymer into a nanoscopic pore obeys a simple scaling law, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 10137-10141 (2001).

Zou, K., Miller, W.T., Givens, R.S. and Bayley, H. Caged thiophosphotyrosine peptides, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 40, 3049-3051 (2001).

Miles, G., Cheley, S., Braha, O. and Bayley, H. The staphylococcal leukocidin bi-component toxin forms large ionic channels, Biochemistry 40, 8514-8522 (2001).

Howorka, S., Cheley, S. and Bayley, H. Sequence-specific detection of individual DNA strands using engineered nanopores, Nature Biotechnology 19, 636-639 (2001).

Movileanu, L., Cheley, S., Howorka, S., Braha, O. and Bayley, H. Location of a constriction in the lumen of a transmembrane pore by targeted covalent attachment of polymer molecules, J. General Physiology 117, 239-251 (2001).              

Gu, L.-Q., Cheley, S. and Bayley, H. Capture of a single molecule in a nanocavity, Science 291, 636-640 (2001).

Schuster, B., Pum, D., Sra, M., Braha, O., Bayley, H. and Sleytr, U.B. S-layer ultrafiltration membranes: a new support for stabilizing functionalized lipid membranes, Langmuir 17, 499-503 (2001).  


Glazier, S.A., Vanderah, D.J., Plant, A.L., Bayley, H., Valincius, G. and Kasianowicz, J.J. Reconstitution of the pore-forming toxin a-hemolysin in phospholipid/18-octadecyl-1-thiahexa(ethylene oxide) and phospholipid/n-octadecanethiol  supported bilayer membranes, Langmuir 16, 10428-10435  (2000).                 

Sanchez-Quesada, J., Ghadiri, M.R., Bayley, H. and Braha, O. Cyclic peptides as molecular adapters for a pore-forming protein, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 11757-11766 (2000).                 

Howorka, S., Sra, M., Wang, Y., Kuen, B., Sleytr, U.B., Lubitz, W. and Bayley, H. Surface accessible residues in the monomeric and assembled forms of a bacterial surface layer protein, J. Biol. Chem. 275, 37876-37886 (2000).

Movileanu, L., Howorka, S., Braha, O. and Bayley, H. Detecting protein analytes that modulate transmembrane movement of a polymer chain within a single protein pore, Nature Biotechnology 18, 1091-1095 (2000).

Gu, L. and Bayley, H. Interaction of the non-covalent molecular adapter, b-cyclodextrin, with the staphylococcal a-hemolysin pore, Biophys. J. 79, 1967-1975 (2000).

Conlan, S., Zhang, Y., Cheley, S. and Bayley, H. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of OmpG: a monomeric porin, Biochemistry 39, 11845-11854 (2000).

Braha, O., Gu, L., Zhou, L., Lu, X., Cheley, S. and Bayley, H. Simultaneous stochastic sensing of divalent metal ions, Nature Biotechnology 18, 1005-1007 (2000).

Gu, L., Dalla Serra, M., Vincent, J.B., Vigh, G., Cheley, S., Braha, O. and Bayley, H. Reversal of charge selectivity in transmembrane protein pores by using non-covalent molecular adapters. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 3959-3964 (2000).

Howorka, S., Movileanu, L., Lu, X., Magnon, M., Cheley, S., Braha, O. and Bayley, H. A protein pore with a single polymer chain tethered within the lumen. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 2411-2416  (2000).

Eroglu, A., Russo, M.J., Bieganski, R., Fowler, A., Cheley, S., Bayley, H. and Toner, M. Intracellular trehalose improves the survival of cryopreserved mammalian cells. Nature Biotechnology 18, 163-167 (2000).      

Before 2000

Cheley, S., Braha, O., Lu, X., Conlan,S. and Bayley, H. A functional protein pore with a "retro" transmembrane domain, Protein Science 8, 1257-1267 (1999).

Gu, L., Braha, O., Conlan, S. Cheley, S. and Bayley, H. Stochastic sensing of organic analytes by a pore-forming protein containing a molecular adapter, Nature 398, 686-690 (1999).

Kasianowicz, J.J., Burden, D.L., Han, L.C., Cheley, S., and Bayley, H. Genetically engineered metal ion binding sites on the outside of a channel's transmembrane b barrel, Biophys. J. 76, 837-845 (1999).

Howorka, S., and Bayley, H. Improved protocol for high throughput cysteine scanning mutagenesis, Biotechniques 25, 764-772 (1998).

Chang, C-Y., Fernandez, T., Panchal, R., and Bayley, H. A caged catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, b 120, 7661-7662 (1998).

Schuster, B., Pum, D., Braha, O., Bayley, H., and Sleytr, U.B. Self-assembled a-hemolysin pores in an S-layer supported lipid membrane. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1370, 280-288 (1998).

Arcidiacono, S., Mello, C., Kaplan, D., Cheley, S., and Bayley, H. Purification and characterization of recombinant spider silk expressed in Escherichia coli. Appl. Microbiol. & Biotechnol. 49, 31-38 (1998).   

Cheley, S., Malghani, M.S., Song, L., Gouaux, J.E., Yang, J., and Bayley, H. Spontaneous oligomerization of a staphylococcal a-hemolysin conformationally constrained by removal of residues that form the transmembrane b-barrel. Protein Engineering 10, 1433-1443 (1997).

Cao, Q., Wang, Y., and Bayley, H. Sequence of abductin, the molluscan "rubber" protein. Current Biology 7, R677- R678(1997).

Valeva, A., Walev, I., Pinkernell, M., Walker, B., Bayley, H., Palmer, M., and Bhakdi, S. Transmembrane b-barrel of staphylococcal alpha-toxin forms in sensitive but not in resistant cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 11607-11611(1997).

Fang, Y., Cheley, S., Bayley, H., and Yang, J. The heptameric prepore of a staphylococcal a-hemolysin mutant in lipid bilayers imaged by atomic force microscopy. Biochemistry 36, 9518-9522 (1997).

Braha, O., Walker, B., Cheley, S., Kasianowicz, J.J., Song, L. Gouaux, J.E., and Bayley, H. Designed pores as components for biosensors. Chemistry & Biology 4, 497-505 (1997).                   

Pan, P., and Bayley, H. Caged cysteine and thiophosphoryl peptides. FEBS Letters 405, 81-85 (1997).

Russo, M., Bayley, H., and Toner, M. Reversible permeabilization of plasma membranes with an engineered switchable pore. Nature Biotechnology 15, 278-282 (1997).

Song, L., Hobaugh, M.R., Shustak, C., Cheley, S., Bayley, H., and Gouaux, J.E., Structure of staphylococcal a-hemolysin, a heptameric transmembrane pore. Science 274, 1859-1865 (1996).

Panchal, R.G., Cusack, E., Cheley, S., and Bayley, H, Tumor protease-activated, pore-forming toxins from a combinatorial library, Nature Biotechnology 14, 852-856 (1996).              
Koltchine, V.V., Anantharam, V., Bayley, H., and Treistman, S.N. Alternative splicing of the NMDAR1 subunit affects modulation by calcium, Mol. Brain Res. 39, 99-108 (1996).                      

The inhibitory effects of ketamine and halothane on recombinant potassium channels from mammalian brain, Anesthesiology 84, 900-909 (1996).                   

Kulkarni, R.S., Zorn, L.J., Anantharam, V., Bayley, H., and Treistman, S.N. The inhibitory effects of ketamine and halothane on recombinant potassium channels from mammalian brain, Anesthesiology 84, 900-909 (1996).

Valeva, A., Weisser, A., Walker, B., Kehoe, M., Bayley, H., Bhakdi, S., and Palmer, M. Molecular architecture of a toxin pore: a 15-residue sequence lines the transmembrane channel of staphylococcal alpha-toxin, EMBO J. 15, 1857-1864 (1996). 

Panchal, R.G., and Bayley, H. Interactions between residues in staphylococcal a-hemolysin revealed by reversion mutagenesis, J. Biol. Chem. 270, 23072-23076(1995).

Walker, B., and Bayley, H. Key residues for membrane binding, oligomerization and pore forming activity of staphylococcal a-hemolysin identified by cysteine scanning mutagenesis and targeted chemical modification, J. Biol. Chem. 270, 23065-23071 (1995).                        

Chang, C.-Y., Niblack, B., Walker, B., and Bayley, H. A photogenerated pore-forming protein, Chemistry & Biology 2, 391-400 (1995).

Walker, B., and Bayley, H. Restoration of pore-forming activity in staphylococcal a-hemolysin by targeted covalent modification, Protein Engineering 8, 491-495 (1995).

Walker, B., Braha, O., Cheley, S., and Bayley, H. An intermediate in the assembly of a pore-forming protein trapped with a genetically-engineered switch, Chemistry & Biology 2, 99-105 (1995).

Gouaux, J.E., Braha, O., Hobaugh, M., Song, L., Cheley, S., Shustak, C., and Bayley, H. Subunit stoichiometry of staphylococcal  a-hemolysin in crystals and on membranes: a heptameric transmembrane pore,  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 12828-12831 (1994).

Krishnasastry, M.V., Walker, B.J., Braha, O., and Bayley, H. Surface labeling of key residues during assembly of the transmembrane pore of staphylococcal a-hemolysin, FEBS Letters 356, 66-71 (1994).

Panchal, R.G., Cheley, S., and Bayley, H. Targeting of neuronal substrates by catalytic subunits of Aplysia cAMP-dependent protein kinase, J. Biol. Chem. 269, 23722-23730 (1994).

Walker, B.J., Kasianowicz, J.J., Krishnasastry, M.V., and Bayley, H. A pore-forming protein with a metal-actuated switch, Protein Engineering 7, 655-662 (1994).

Cheley, S., Panchal, R.G., Carr, D.W., Scott, J.D., and Bayley, H. Type II regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and their binding proteins in the nervous system of Aplysia, J. Biol. Chem. 269, 2911-2920 (1994).

Walker, B., and Bayley, H. A pore-forming protein with a protease-activated trigger, Protein Engineering 7, 91-97 (1994).

Zorn, L., Kulkarni, R., Anantharam, V., Bayley, H., and Treistman, S.N. Halothane acts on many potassium channels, Neurosci. Letters  161, 81-84 (1993).

Koltchine, V.V., Anantharam, V., Wilson, A., Bayley, H., and Treistman, S.N. Homomeric assemblies of  NMDAR1 subunit splice variants are sensitive to ethanol, Neurosci. Letters 152, 13-16 (1993).

Walker, B., Krishnasastry, M.V., and Bayley, H. Functional complementation of staphylococcal a-hemolysin fragments: overlaps, nicks and gaps in the glycine-rich loop, J. Biol. Chem. 268, 5285-5292 (1993).

Walker, B., Krishnasastry, M.V., Zorn, L., and Bayley, H. Assembly of the oligomeric membrane pore formed by staphylococcal a-hemolysin examined by truncation mutagenesis, J. Biol. Chem. 267, 21782-21786 (1992).

Anantharam, V., Bayley, H., Wilson, A., and Treistman, S.N. Differential effects of ethanol on electrical properties of potassium channels expressed in oocytes, Mol. Pharmacol. 42, 499-505 (1992).              

Cheley, S.,  Kosik, K.S., Bakalis, S., Paskevich, P., and Bayley, H. Phosphorylated Baculovirus p10 is a heat-stable microtubule-associated protein associated with process formation in Sf9 cells, J. Cell Sci. 102, 739-752 (1992).               

Anantharam, V., Panchal, R., Wilson, A., Koltchine, V.V., Treistman, S.N., and Bayley, H. Combinatorial RNA splicing alters the surface charge on the NMDA receptor, FEBS Letters 305, 27-30 (1992).                        

Walker, B., Krishnasastry, M.V., Zorn, L., Kasianowicz, J., and Bayley, H. Functional expression of the a-hemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus  in intact Escherichia coli and in cell lysates. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 10902-10909 (1992).                   

Beushausen, S., Lee, E., Walker, B., and Bayley, H. Catalytic subunits of Aplysia neuronal cAMP-dependent protein kinase with two different N-termini, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA  89, 1641-1645 (1992).                  

Bergold, P., Beushausen, S., Saktor, T., Cheley, S., Bayley, H., and Schwartz, J.H. A regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase down-regulated in Aplysia sensory neurons during long-term sensitization, Neuron 8, 387-397 (1992).   

Cheley, S., and Bayley, H.  Kinetics and regulation of two catalytic subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase from Aplysia californica, Biochemistry 30, 10246-10255 (1991).                       

Treistman, S.N., Bayley, H., Lemos, J., Wang, X., Nordmann, J.J., and Grant, A. Ethanol: effects on Ca2+ channels, K+ channels and vasopressin release. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.   625, 249-263 (1991).                       

Cheley, S., and Bayley, H.  Assaying nanogram amounts of dilute protein, Biotechniques 10, 730-732 (1991).

Glick, D.L., Hellmich, M., Beushausen, S., Tempst, P., Bayley, H., and Strumwasser, F. Primary structure of a molluscan egg-specific NADase: a second messenger enzyme. Cell Regulation 2, 211-218 (1991).

Beushausen, S., and Bayley, H. A relative of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in Aplysia spermatozoa. Mol. Cell. Biol. 10, 6775-6780 (1990).                    

Cayanis, E., Bayley, H., and Edelman, I.S. Cell-free transcription and translation of Na, K-ATPase a and b subunit cDNAs. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 10829-10835 (1990).            

Yemul, S.S., Berger, C., Katz, M., Estabrook, A.,  Edelson, R., and Bayley, H. Phototoxic liposomes coupled to an antibody that alone cannot modulate its cell-surface antigen kill selected target cells. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 30, 317-322 (1990).        

Obar, R., Dingus, J., Bayley, H., and Vallee, R. The RII subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase binds to a common amino-terminal domain in microtubule associated proteins 2A, 2B, and 2C.  Neuron 3, 639-645 (1989)

Weiss, K.R., Bayley, H., Lloyd, P.E., Tenenbaum, R., Gawinowicz-Kolks, M.A., Buck, L., Cropper, E.C., Rosen, S.C., and Kupfermann I. Purification and sequencing of neuropeptides from identified neuron R15 of Aplysia californica. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA  86, 2913-2917 (1989).                      

Beushausen, S., Bergold, P., Sturner, S., Elste, A., Roytenberg, V., Schwartz, J.H., and Bayley, H.  Two catalytic subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase generated by alternative RNA splicing are expressed in Aplysia  neurons, Neuron 1, 853-864 (1988).                      

Teltscher, J., Yemul, S., Estabrook, A., Berger, C., Edelson, R., and Bayley, H., Phototoxic liposomes for selective destruction of T lymphocytes: experiments under physiological conditions. In Liposomes as Drug Carriers, pp 783-792 (G. Gregoriadis, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Chichester) 1988.              

Greenberg, S.M., Castellucci,V.F., Bayley, H., and Schwartz, J.H., A molecular mechanism for long-term sensitization in Aplysia, Nature 329, 62-65 (1987).                  

Krieg, U., Isaacs, B.S., Yemul, S.S., Esmon, C.T., Bayley, H., and Johnson, A., The interaction of blood coagulation factor Va with phospholipid vesicles: an examination using lipophilic photoreagents. Biochemistry 26, 103-109 (1987).                       

Arquint, M., Roder, J., Chia L.-S., Down, J., Wilkinson, D., Bayley, H., Braun, P., and Dunn, R., The molecular cloning and primary structure of myelin associated glycoprotein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 600-604 (1987).              

Yemul, S.S., Berger, C., Estabrook, A., Suarez, S., Edelson, R., and Bayley, H., Selective killing of T lymphocytes by phototoxic liposomes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 246-250 (1987).                

Stevens, E., Bayley, H., and Brophy, P.J. Localization of proteins in bovine central nervous system myelin with surface-specific and photoactivatable hydrophobic reagents. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 14, 858 (1986).                 

Eppler, C.M., Bayley, H., Greenberg, S., and Schwartz, J.H., Structural studies on a family of cAMP-binding proteins in the nervous system of Aplysia.  J. Cell Biol. 102, 320-331 (1986).                    

Yemul, S.S., Berger, C., Estabrook, A., Edelson, R., and Bayley, H., The delivery of phototoxic drugs to selected cells. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 446, 403-414 (1985).             

Tobkes, N., Wallace, B.A., and Bayley, H., Secondary structure and assembly mechanism of an oligomeric channel protein. Biochemistry 24, 1915-1920 (1985).                   

Shih, L.B., and Bayley, H.,  A carbene-yielding amino acid for incorporation into peptide photoaffinity reagents.  Analyt. Biochem. 144, 132-144 (1985).               

Huang, K.-S., Radhadrishnan, R., Bayley, H., and Khorana, H. G., Orientation of retinal in bacteriorhodopsin as studied by crosslinking using a photosensitive analog of retinal.  J. Biol. Chem. 257, 13616-13623 (1982).            

Rothschild, K.J., Argade, P.V., Earnest, T.N., Huang, K.-S., London, E., Liao, M.-J., Bayley, H., Khorana, H.G., and Herzfeld, J., The site of attachment of retinal in bacteriorhodopsin: a resonance raman study.  J.Biol. Chem.  257, 8592-8595 (1982).                     

Bayley, H., Hojeberg, B., Huang, K.-S, Liao, M.-J., Lind, C., London, E., and Khorana, H.G., Delipidation, reconstitution, and renaturation of bacteriorhodopsin, Methods in Enzymology 88, 74-81 (1982).             

Bayley, H., Huang, K.-S., Radhakrishnan, R., Ross, A.H., Takagaki, Y., and Khorana, H.G., Site of attachment of retinal in bacteriorhodopsin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 2225-2229 (1981).                 

Huang, K.-S., Bayley, H., Liao, M.-J., London, E., and Khorana, H.G., Refolding of an integral membrane protein: Denaturation, renaturation and reconstitution of intact bacteriorhodopsin and two proteolytic fragments. J. Biol. Chem. 256, 3802-3809 (1981).              

Bayley, H., Radhakrishnan, R., Huang, K.-S., and Khorana, H.G., Light-driven proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin reconstituted with the phenyl  analog of retinal. J. Biol. Chem. 256, 3797-3801 (1981).        

Bayley, H., and Knowles J.R., Photogenerated reagents for membranes: Selective labeling of intrinsic membrane proteins in the human erythrocyte membrane. Biochemistry 19, 3883-3892 (1980).            

Farley, R., Goldman, D.W., and Bayley, H., Identification of regions of the catalytic subunit of Na,K-ATPase embedded within the cell membrane. J. Biol. Chem. 255, 860-864 (1980).            

Huang, K.-S., Bayley, H., and Khorana, H.G., Delipidation of bacteriorhodopsin and reconstitution with exogenous phospholipid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 323-327 (1980)                  

Goldman, D.W., Pober, J.S., White, J., and Bayley, H., Selective labeling of the hydrophobic segments of intrinsic membrane proteins with a lipophilic photogenerated carbene. Nature 280, 841-843 (1979).            

Bayley, H., Inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport -  The properties of diazidodialkylbenzoquinones. Z. Naturforschung 34c, 490-492 (1979).     

Bayley, H., Standring, D.N., and Knowles, J.R., Propane-1, 3-dithiol: A selective reagent for the efficient reduction of alkyl and aryl azides to amines. Tetrahedron Letters 3633-3634 (1978).               

Bayley, H., and Knowles, J.R., Photogenerated reagents for membrane labeling. II. Phenyl carbene and adamantylidene formed within the lipid bilayer. Biochemistry 17, 2420-2423 (1978).                      

Bayley, H., and Knowles, J.R., Photogenerated reagents for membrane labeling.  I. Phenyl nitrene formed within the lipid bilayer. Biochemistry 17, 2414-2419 (1978).             

Staros, J.V., Bayley, H., Standring, D.N., and Knowles, J.R., Reduction of aryl azides by thiols: Implications for the use of photoaffinity reagents. Biochem. Biophys. Res.
Commun.  80, 568-572 (1978).

Reviews/Book Chapters

Bayley, H. Holes with an edge, Nature 467, 164-165 (2010). DOI:10.1038/467164a            

Maglia, G., Heron, A.J., Stoddart, D., Japrung, D. and Bayley, H. Analysis of single nucleic acid molecules with protein nanopores. Methods in Enzymology 475, 591-623 (2010). DOI: 10.1016/S0076-6879(10)75022-9        

Bayley, H., Cheley, S., Harrington, L. and Syeda, R. Wrestling with native chemical ligation. ACS Chem. Biol. 4, 983-985 (2009). DOI: 10.1021/cb900304p                  

Bayley, H. Piercing insights, Nature 459, 651-652 (2009). DOI:10.1038/459651a                

Branton, D., Deamer, D., Marziali, A., Bayley, H. et al. The potential and challenges of nanopore sequencing, Nature Biotechnology 26, 1146-1153 (2008). DOI: 10.1038/nbt.1495 PMC2683588                       

Bayley, H., Cronin, B., Heron, A., Holden, M., Hwang, W., Syeda, R., Thompson, J. and Wallace, M. Droplet interface bilayers, Mol. BioSystems 4, 1191-1208 (2008). DOI: 10.1039/b808893d              

Bayley, H., Luchian, T., Shin, S.-H. and  Steffensen, M.B. Single-molecule covalent chemistry in a protein nanoreactor, pp251-277, Chapter 10 in "Single Molecules and Nanotechnology", R. Rigler and H. Vogel, eds., Springer, Heidelberg (2008).             

Bayley, H. Sequencing single molecules of DNA, Curr. Op. Chem. Biol. 10, 628-637 (2006). DOI:10.1016/j.cbpa.2006.10.040            

Bayley, H. Ion channels get flashy, Nature Chem. Biol. 2, 11-13 (2006).               

Astier, Y., Bayley, H. and Howorka, S. Protein components for nanodevices, Curr. Op. Chem. Biol. 9, 576-584 (2005).                       

Bayley, H., Jayasinghe, L. and Wallace, M. Prepore for a breakthrough, Nature Struct. Mol. Biol. 12, 385-386 (2005).                       

Loudwig, S. and Bayley, H. Light-activated proteins: an overview, pp 253-304, in Dynamic studies in biology: phototriggers, photoswitches and caged biomolecules, M. Goeldner and R. Givens, eds., Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, (2005).                     

Bayley, H. and Jayasinghe, L. Functional engineered channels and pores, Mol. Membrane Biol. 21, 209-220 (2004).                       

Bayley, H., Braha, O., Cheley, S. and Gu, L.-Q. Engineered nanopores, Chapter 7 in NanoBiotechnology, pp 93-112, C.M. Niemeyer and C.A. Mirkin, eds., Wiley-VCH Verlag (2004).              

Bayley, H. and Cremer, P.S. Stochastic sensors inspired by biology, Nature 413, 226-230 (2001).            

Howorka, S., and Bayley, H. High-throughput scanning mutagenesis by recombination PCR, in Methods in molecular biology, vol. 182, chapter 16, In vitro mutagenesis protocols, J. Braman, ed., Humana Press, 141-149 (2001)                   

Bayley, H., and Martin, C.R. Resistive-pulse sensing: from microbes to molecules, Chem. Rev. 100, 2575- 2594 (2000)                       

Bayley, H., Braha, O., and Gu, L.-Q. Stochastic sensing with protein pores, Adv. Mater. 12, 139-142 (2000)   

Bayley, H.  Protein therapy: delivery guaranteed, Nature Biotechnology 17, 1066-1067 (1999).                  

Malghani,M.S., Fang, Y., Cheley, S., Bayley, H., and Yang, J. Heptameric structure of two a-hemolysin mutants imaged with in situ atomic force microscopy. Microsc. Res. Tech. 44, 353-356 (1999).                 

Bayley, H. Designed membrane channels and pores, Curr. Op. Biotechnol. 10, 94-103 (1999).                  

Fernandez, T., and Bayley, H.  Ferrying proteins to the other side, Nature Biotechnology 16, 418-420 (1998).

Bayley, H. Biosensors, Science's Next Wave website, , March 1998. ,

Bayley, H., Chang, C.-y., Miller, W.T., Niblack, B., and Pan, P. Caged peptides and proteins by targeted chemical modification, Methods Enzymol. 291, 117-135 (1998)                  

Bayley, H. Toxin structure: part of a hole? Current Biology 7, R763- R767 (1997)              

Bayley, H. Building a door into cells, Scientific American 277 (3) (September issue), 62-67 (1997) (Translated into: German- Spektrum der Wissenschaften, December 12th, 1997; Japanese, Scientific American, December, 1997; French- Pour la Science, November, 1997)        

Sleytr, U.B., Bayley, H., and 21 others. Applications of S-layers, FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 20, 151- 175 (1997)   

Bhakdi, S., Bayley, H., Valeva, A., Walev, I., Walker, B., Weller, U., Kehoe, M., and Palmer, M. Staphylococcal alpha-toxin, streptolysin O and Escherichia coli hemolysin: prototypes of pore-forming bacterial cytolysins, Arch. Microbiol. 165, 73-79 (1996)                      

Bayley, H. Pore-forming proteins with built-in triggers and switches, Bioorganic Chemistry (Jeremy Knowles Symposium), 23, 340-354 (1995)            

Bayley, H. Duplicated subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase: observing necessity emerge from redundancy. Evolution of Biological Information Processing Systems, NSF Workshop, Arlington, VA, (1995).

Bayley, H. Triggers and switches in a pore-forming protein. FDA/ Society for Biomaterials- Workshop on "Biotechnology applications in biomaterials". J. Cell. Biochem. 56, 177-182 (1994).                      

Bayley, H. Genetically engineered pores as components of biosensors. Proceedings of 12th Annual Conference on Membrane Technology, BCC Inc., Norwalk, CT, (1994)                

Kasianowicz, J.J., Walker, B.J., Krishnasastry, M.V., and  Bayley, H. Genetically engineered pores as metal ion biosensors. MRS Symposium Proceedings 330, 217-223 (1994)             

Walker, B.J., Walsh, N., and  Bayley, H. Genetically-engineered protease-activated triggers in a pore-forming protein. MRS Symposium Proceedings 330, 209-215 (1994)                    

Bayley, H. Genetically engineered pores: ultrafiltration and beyond. Proceedings of 11th Annual Conference on Membrane Technology, BCC Inc., Norwalk, CT, (1993)                

Bayley, H., Krishnasastry, M.V., Walker, B.J., and  Kasianowicz, J.J. Assembly of a-hemolysin: a proteinaceous pore with potential applications in materials synthesis. MRS Symposium Proceedings 292, 243-252 (1993)                   

Bayley, H. Eukaryotic signal transduction pathways and man-made devices compared, MRS Symposium Proceedings 255, 269-274 (1992).                  

Bayley, H., Walker, B.J., Krishnasastry, M.V., and Kasianowicz, J. a-Hemolysin: a self-assembling pore with potential applications in the synthesis of new materials. MRS Symposium Proceedings 255, 201-205 (1992).                      

Krishnasastry, M., Walker, B., Zorn, L., Kasianowicz, J., and Bayley, H. Genetically engineered pores as components of synthetic microstructures. In Synthetic Microstructures in Biological Research, J.M. Schnur and M. Peckerar, eds., Plenum, New York, pp 41-51 (1992).                  

Bayley, H. Monolayers from genetically engineered protein pores. MRS   Symposium Proceedings 218, 69-74 (1991).           

Bayley, H., Diazirines as photoactivatable reagents in biochemistry.  In The Chemistry of  Diazirines,  M.T.H. Liu, ed., (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida), Vol. 2, pp 75-99 (1987).                    

Bayley, H., Gasparro, F., and Edelson, R., Photoactivatable drugs. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 8, 138-143 (1987).             

Bayley, H., and Staros, J.V., Photoaffinity Labeling and Related Techniques. In Azides and Nitrenes, E.F.V. Scriven, ed., Academic Press, New York, pp 433-490 (1984).                   

Bayley, H., Photoactivated hydrophobic reagents for integral membrane proteins: A critical discussion.  In Membranes  and Transport, A. Martonosi, ed., Plenum, New York,  Vol I, pp. 185-194 (1982).              

H.G. Khorana & others, Recent Studies on Bacteriorhodopsin. In Biomolecular Stereodynamics, Vol. II, pp. 37-54, R.H. Sarma ed., Adenine Press, New York  (1981).                     

Bayley, H., and Knowles, J.R., Photogenerated hydrophobic reagents for intrinsic membrane proteins. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 346, 45-58 (1980).                 

Bayley, H.  and Knowles, J.R., Photoaffinity labeling. Methods in Enzymology 46, 69-113 (1977). 


Bayley, H., Photogenerated Reagents in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Elsevier-North Holland Biomedical Press (1983)


Bayley, H. Darwin's dilemma. Review of "In pursuit of the gene" by James Schwartz (Harvard University Press). Chemistry World, in press (2010).          

Bayley, H. Interfacial energy. RSC News, May 2010 pp 14-15.     

Bayley, H. A well-sauced history. Review of “The Dyson Perrins Laboratory and Oxford Organic Chemistry: 1916-2004” by Rachel Curtis, Catherine Leith, Joshua Nall and John Jones. Balliol College Annual Record 2009, pp 55-57.     

Bayley, H. Review of Physical Biology: from Atoms to Medicine, edited by Ahmed H. Zewail, Chemistry World 6, 64 (2009). 

Bayley, H. Understanding and manipulating channels and pores. Mol. BioSystems 3, 645-647 (2007). DOI: 10.1039/b713296b        

Bayley, H. and Romesberg, F. From therapeutic nucleic acids to redox hydrogels: the diverse world of biopolymers. Current Op. Chem. Biol. 10, 598-600 (2006). DOI 10.1016/j.cbpa.2006.10.028       

Prestwich, G.D. and Bayley, H. Une liaison dangereuse: the lasting affair between chemistry and biology, Current Op. Chem. Biol. 3, 61-63 (1999).

Anderson, P. A. V., and Bayley, H. Final Report. NSF Workshop on the evolution of biological information processing systems. (1995).           

Bayley, H. Self-assembling biomolecular materials in medicine. (Report). FDA/ Society for Biomaterials- Workshop on "Biotechnology applications in biomaterials". J. Cell. Biochem. 56, 168-170 (1994).          

Bayley, H. Channels with single transmembrane segments. (Letter). News in Physiological Sciences 9, 45 (1994).


P1.      DNA threading efficiency (14th November 2008, UK patent filed: 0820927.2 )     

P2.      Molecular adaptors (October 2007, UK patent filed)

P3.      WO 2008/012552: Formation of bilayers of amphipathic molecules (application published 31 January 2008) 

P4.      Nanopore sensor system (April 2006, provisional patent filed)

P5.      US Patent No. 6,927,070: Analyte sensing mediated by adapter/carrier molecules (issued August 9th, 2005)

P6.      Methods using pores (November 2005, UK patent filed)

P7.      Delivery of molecules to a lipid bilayer (March 2005, UK patent filed)

P8.      High temperature ion channels and pore (December 2004, provisional patent filed)

P9.      Stochastic sensing through covalent interactions (May 2002, provisional patent filed; February 2003, provisional patent filed; May 2003, full patent filed)

P10.    US Patent No. 6,916,665: Biosensor compositions and methods of use (issued July 12th, 2005)

P11.    US Patent No. 6,426,231 B1: Analyte sensing mediated by adapter/carrier molecules (issued July 30th, 2002)

P12.    US Patent No. 6,824,659: Designed protein pores as components for biosensors (issued November 30th, 2004)

P13.    US Patent No. 6,127,166: Molluscan ligament polypeptides and genes encoding them (issued October 3rd, 2000)

P14.    US Patent No. 5,824,776: Cell-targeted lytic pore-forming agents (issued October 20th, 1998)

P15.    US Patent No. 5,817,771: Cell-targeted lytic pore-forming agents (issued October 6th, 1998)

P16.    US Patent No. 5,777,078: Triggered pore-forming agents (issued July 7th, 1998)       

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